Most people are aware of diabetes, but they don’t know that there are multiple types of this disease. We believe it’s important to know all about the disease, even if you don’t have it. If you do have diabetes, it’s still a good idea to read about the other types. Knowledge is power!
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus:
Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), is a metabolic disease in which the body destroys insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas, causing hyperglycemia within the body.
Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed from childhood to young adulthood. The management of type 1 diabetes requires you to either inject insulin several times a day, or use an insulin pump in order to make up for the lack of insulin within your body. Scientists are unable to trace the exact mechanisms of type 1 diabetes, but it behaves similarly to most other autoimmune diseases. Insulin is a hormone that transports glucose in the blood to the body’s tissues for energy, and are created by beta cells within the pancreas. In a type 1 diabetic, their body’s immune system attempts to destroy all of the beta cells within the pancreas, which results in the body being unable to produce insulin. Because there’s no insulin to move glucose into your body’s cells, an excess of glucose accumulates within your blood, causing a variety of symptoms associated with hyperglycemia. These include dehydration, weight loss, and eventual damage to the nervous and vascular system.
In general, diabetics are urged to keep a positive diet and exercise plan to ease the pressure of hyperglycemia within the body, and type 1 diabetics are no exception. If you do not properly manage your type 1 diabetes, you are at risk for retinal damage, kidney damage, or damage to the nervous or vascular system. It is important to treat type 1 diabetes as soon as possible, as the risk of a diabetic coma is serious and can lead to death. Type 1 diabetes has no known cure at the moment, but it’s able to be managed well enough to live a full and happy life.
Some interesting facts about type 1 diabetes:
Only 5% to 10% of people with diabetes have type 1.
Type 1 diabetes is more common in Caucasians than it is in African-Americans.
Anyone with a parent or sibling that has type 2 diabetes is prone to a slightly increased risk of type 1 diabetes.
More specifically, the risk of a child developing type 1 diabetes is about 10% if the father has it, 10% if a sibling has it, 4% if the mother has it and as 25 or younger when she gave birth, and 1% if she wasnt.
It seems that the farther away you are from the equator, the higher the risk of type 1 diabetes. People in Finland and Sardinia have the highest incidence of type 1 diabetes, more than 400 times that of Venezuela.
There are two peaks in your life in which the risk of type 1 diabetes is higher than normal:
The first is between the ages of 4 and 7, and the second is between the ages of 10 and 14.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:
Diabetes mellitus type 2, also known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), is a condition in which the body is unable to produce enough insulin from beta cells due to insulin resistance. This can cause a variety of symptoms, such as: frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger, blurred vision, itchiness, nerve damage, and weight loss. Other effects of Type 2 diabetes include the increased breakdown of lipids within fat cells, high glucose levels in the blood, increased retention of water and salt by the kidneys, and a dysfunctional metabolism. Also, complications can occur, but are rare in people with well-regulated blood sugar.
There are several different kinds of anti-diabetic medication, which may reduce the risk of mortality in diabetics. The most prescribed medicine is called “Metformin”, which was developed in the 1920s to reduce blood sugar, and is now the most widely prescribed antidiabetic drug in the world. Antidiabetic medicines can be combined, which is what “Avandamet” did. “Avandamet” combined metformin and rosiglitazone as they synergized well together. Rosiglitazone made cells more sensitive to insulin, which made the metformin more potent, and thusly more efficient. There are numerous kinds of these combinations, and numerous different medications – but not all of them are good for you…
Malnutrition-Related Diabetes Mellitus:
Malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus (MRDM) is a rare type of diabetes that is most prevalent in the Indian subcontinent and other tropical and subtropical developing countries. It is associated with long term malnutrition, and people who have it are often thin, young, severely hypoglycemic, and require high doses of insulin due to their lack of ketonuria. Management of MRDM includes a proper diet and large amounts of insulin.
Unspecified Diabetes Mellitus:
This diagnosis means that it is too early in the evaluation process to make a diagnosis, or the clinician does not specialize in diabetes, so he/she cannot make a diagnosis. This can be specified later on in the diagnostic procedure.
Impaired Glucose Tolerance:
Over 20 million people in the U.S have Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT), but only 1-5% of people who have IGT actually develop diabetes. IGT is also known as the transition phase between normal glucose tolerance and diabetes, and some call it prediabetes. Because it’s the transition phase between normal glucose tolerance and diabetes, the blood glucose levels of a prediabetic waver between those of a diabetic and those who do not have some form of diabetes.
With preventative measures such as diet and exercise, over 58% of pre-diabetics will not fully develop diabetes, or the formation of diabetes will be extremely slowed during its development process.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus:
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition during pregnancy in which the mother’s body is unable to make a sustainable amount of insulin, and as a result the blood glucose of said mother becomes higher than normal. GDM affects between 2 to 10% of women during pregnancy. Infants of mothers with GDM have double the risk of serious injury upon birth, triple the likelihood of cesarean delivery (c-section), and quadruple the admission rates into the newborn intensive care unit. It is recommended by doctors for mothers with GDM to supplement their diet with calcium and vitamin D3 tablets. Many measures are taken to ensure safe delivery, such as prenatal obsteric management, where various fetal biophysical tests are performed to determine the health of the baby. Insulin therapy and diet changes are also key to a successful treatment.